Failure probability calculations are based on the assumption that failure rates are fixed and constant. That assumption is completely invalid, but the calculations are still useful.
System information modelling in practice: Analysis of tender documentation quality in a mining mega-project
In a safety instrumented system how should we calculate risk reduction for a set of safety functions that shares a common final element?
The extent of the hazardous areas should be reduced as far as practicable by applying principles of safety-by-design.
What can we expect to see in the new revised edition of IEC 61511?
The main driver for functional safety is the need to demonstrate duty of care in managing risks.
How can we make better use of competency based assessment in functional safety?
Managing the risk of systematic failures is not difficult; the principles are essentially the same as in quality management and risk management.
Independent audits and assessments reveal the commonly recurring and widespread problems.
This paper is on the topic of avoiding errors and failures due to the design, implementation and operation of the systems.
Many users in the process sector have not been able to comply fully with the requirements for hardware fault tolerance – but there are practical ways of achieving compliance.
Even the ‘simplified’ equations for probability of failure can seem to be a bit mysterious. Here is an explanation in plain language.
Assessing the impact of RFIs in Electrical and Instrumentation
Engineering Contracts – Research Paper
The cost of managing RFIs in todays complex E&I projects is much higher then generally expected.
A typical MES or MOM System adheres or adopts the principles of a 3 – tier architecture.
Poor design and documentation has been identified as a major factor contributing to poor performance and productivity in the construction industry.